Le Biogaz à la mode

En Bretagne, un vaste plan de développement du procédé de méthanisation a vu le jour en 2007 dans le cadre du plan Biogaz, né de la collaboration de l’ADEME et des quatre départements (Côtes-d’Armor, Finistère, Ille-et-Vilaine et Morbihan). De nombreuses usines de méthanisation sont d’ores et déjà en fonctionnement, et ce malgré un démarrage tardif.

La méthanisation: un procédé énergétique propre

La méthanisation est un procédé permettant de créer du compost à partir de matière organique. Pour faire simple, les déchets organiques sont récupérés, traités pour en extraire le méthane, celui-ci étant utilisé afin de produire du biogaz, puis de l’électricité à l’aide d’un cogénérateur. Sans rentrer dans le détails techniques, et pour résumer le procédé, on peut à partir de matière organique (abondante dans les fermes) créer une énergie renouvelable ainsi que des fertilisants naturels. A la production d’électricité s’ajoute un dégagement de chaleur du compost lui-même, utilisé pour chauffer naturellement les installations de la ferme telles que les bâtiments de porcs, ou encore pour sécher les céréales.

Le biogaz, une énergie renouvelable à part entière ?

Aujourd’hui, c’est plus d’une centaine de projets d’unités de valorisation du biogaz qui vont voir le jour, une aubaine pour la région bretonne qui s’inscrit de manière concrète dans la politique de valorisation des énergies renouvelables. Une telle démarche présente plusieurs avantages pour la Bretagne, outre la production d’énergie propre: cela permet de réduire considérablement les émissions de gaz à effet de serre issues des déchets organiques, et profite économiquement à la région en créant de l’emploi.

Espérons que les résultats de ce projet permettront de convaincre d’autres autorités locales à travers la France, dans l’optique de développer un engouement national issu d’initiatives locales d’utilisation d’énergies renouvelables.

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